An Ol' Broad's Ramblings
Archive for U.S. Constitution
Swiped from Politichicks:
To Sheila Jackson-Lee, With Love
by Sam Janney
Dear Ms. Jackson-Lee,
It has come to our attention, the conservative bloggers of the world that you would prefer if we “shut up.” We had no idea that we were in any way offending your delicate, tender sensibilities and from the bottom of our hearts, we are sorry.
We are sorry you are so obviously intimidated by our conservative voice that you feel the need to tell us to “shut up.” Honestly, being strong supporters of the first amendment we thought you, as a representative of the people, would be as well. You have been known to voice an abundance of ignorant statements, and while we snicker a bit at you, we would never insinuate in any way that you should shut up. Okay, we might wish you would educate yourself before opening your big mouth, but we would never just blatantly express such disdain for you, especially on television.
We are sorry you feel the need to continue down the path of division, propagating racism and class warfare. Granted, we know you have an agenda to push (all politicians do), but it saddens us that this is your passion. In the same interview where you told conservative bloggers to “shut up,” you also said that it shouldn’t be “Buy American,” it should be “Buy African American.” Personally, we feel that regardless of race, color, sex or creed, we are all Americans and are perplexed that you would want to segregate the black community as part of your agenda.
We are sorry you can’t see the bigger picture when it comes to challenges facing our great country, and would rather focus on creating a climate where conservatives are the bad guys and liberals are the victims. While we focus on the ability of all people to succeed on their own accord, you continue to push the idea that government is the answer to all our woes and even go as far as to tell people they are entitled and should go out of their way to become dependent via government programs. This is ironic because ultimately government dependence creates a cycle of poverty, trapping people and in a way, enslaving them. You of all people, who recently said you “Stand here as a freed slave…” should understand this more than anyone.
Finally, we are sorry you clearly don’t understand what it is we’re trying to accomplish. We are only a threat if you or your colleagues are lying to the American people, stealing from them or behaving in a way that we find unacceptable in an elected official. If you are honest, forthcoming and truly working under the Constitution to do what is right for this country, you need never worry about us.
Of course, since you wouldn’t understand the Constitution if we explained it to you with puppets and crayons, then yes, you should worry. We’ll see you in the blog-o-sphere.
I found the brief interruptions by whoever that was extremely annoying.
Yesterday, I received a link to a column at Zero Hedge that really made me stop…and think. Yes, it was painful, but I managed. I not only see myself in this, I see a great many others. Why do we expect someone else to do the hard work? We talk, we write letters to the editor, some of us have blogs where we share our thoughts, and rants, with others, but what do most of us actually DO? I have a legitimate excuse for not taking more physical action… I’m a decrepit ol’ broad, but what’s your excuse?
Personally, I know one….ONE person, who has actually taken action, ran for a local office, and won. After finding out how things really go down, he’s questioning whether he wants to even bother running for re-election. After all, he’s just one voice. But we need to remember, it was just one Voice that actually changed the entire world.
Here’s a snippet of the column. It’s a bit long, so I won’t paste the whole thing. Please, go read it, and think.
The Good Guys Are Not Coming To Save Us
by Tyler Durden
A lot of Americans know that the US government is out of control. Anyone who has cared enough to study the US Constitution even a little knows this. Still, very few of these people are taking any significant action, and largely because of one error: They are waiting for “the good guys” to show up and fix things.
Some think that certain groups of politicians will pull it together and fix things, or that one magnificent politician will ride in to fix things. Others think that certain members of the military will step in and slap the politicians back into line. And, I’m sure there are other variations.
There are several problems with this. I’ll start with the small issues:
- It doesn’t happen. A lot of good people have latched on to one grand possibility after another, waiting for a good guy to save the day, and it just doesn’t happen. Thousands of hours of reading, writing and waiting are burned with each new “great light” who comes along with a promise to run the system in the “right” way, and give us liberty and truth. (Or whatever.) Lots of decent folks grab on to one pleasant dream after another, only to end up right back where they started… but poorer in time, energy and finances.
- Hope is a scam. It’s a dream of someday, somehow, getting something for nothing. People who hope do not act – they wait for other people to act. Hope is a tool to neuter a natural opposition: they sit and hope, and never act against you. Even the biblical meaning of hope is something more like expectation (or sometimes waiting) than the modern use of hope.
- Petitioning an abuser for compassion. The “good guys” are considered to be a few people inside the abusive government. But if the good guys were really good, wouldn’t they have dissociated themselves with an abuser some time ago? By pleading for the good guys to rise up, people are asking one sub-group of the abusers to save them from the rest of the abusers. However, they all work for the same operation; they all get paid out of the same offices; according to the same rulebook. And if the good guys are so willing to turn against their employers, why would they have waited until now?
- Movies. We all grew up in the company of movie heroes who rode in at the last minute to save the noble victims. From John Wayne to Star Trek to Bruce Willis, the story line differs little. These are pleasant stories, of course, but cinema is not reality, and hoping for it to become reality is something that we should get over prior to adulthood.
But, as I say, those are the smaller issues. Let’s move on to the serious ones.
We have been programed to respect authority. But what if that authority is destroying everything we believe in? Do we sit back and allow that authority to continue, or do we stand up and fight back? We have to ask ourselves, are we willing to “mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our Fortunes and our sacred Honor.”
I expect this kind of nonsense from John McCain, Lindsay Graham, Chuckie Schumer, and the typical roll call of Dems. To say I am more than disappointed in Marco Rubio and Jeff Flake, ESPECIALLY Rubio, would be like me saying “I don’t like fish.” I really DON’T like fish, and anyone who knows me, knows I definitely do not like fish! (no, one has nothing to do with the other…just a statement of fact)
We, the Constitution supporters, put a lot of faith in Rubio. Many worked long hard hours to get him into the Senate. People around the country sent money they could ill afford to help in the effort. This is how the people are repaid? With more garbage? More taxes? Amnesty???? To reward criminals? How is this a positive move for ANYONE other than the criminals themselves, and the politicians?
We have laws on the books. You commit a crime, you pay the penalty. It’s not that complicated. Yet, these 8 weasels are throwing out those laws, putting more of a burden on the people who came to the country legally, in whichever century, and giving a free pass to those who believe themselves above the law. We have a border. There’s a reason why man created fences. Good fences make good neighbors. Our fences are broken, and our neighbors aren’t ‘good’. They’ve trashed our yards, killed our ‘family members’, and cost billions in tax dollars.
We were promised a fence. Then, we were promised a ‘virtual fence’. We spent an extremely large amount of money. They tell us “It didn’t work”. The solution is simple. Build a physical fence, a very tall, sturdy fence, with razor wire, electrify the fence, and if necessary, put gun turrets every 20 yards along that fence. If that doesn’t work, there are always land mines, moats filled with alligators, piranhas, or some similar nasty creatures. If the tribes along the border have a problem, two words….imminent domain. After all, Congress has used that for reasons OTHER than what it was created, why not use it for the purpose it was intended? And if the EPA has a problem, you tell ‘em to live down there, and deal with the criminals hauling drugs across our borders to poison our children. I can guaran-damn-tee, they’ll change their tune quicker than you can say jackalope!!
It’s a well know fact that government doesn’t “fix” anything. They create more problems with their “fixes”. They are worse than a child with a screw driver in a room full of expensive electronics!
Do they truly want to solve a very serious problem? If so, they can scrap that 844 page piece of crap, bring out one very clean sheet of paper, and start writing:
1. Build big fence.
2. Hire more border guards (uniforms Made in U.S.A., not Mexico).
3. Arm said guards to the teeth, with live ammo, not rubber bullets, or freakin’ bean bags.
4. “Shoot to kill” orders, if said criminals don’t turn their sorry asses around and go home.
5. All student and non immigrant visa recipients will wear tracking devices. If such person, or persons, overstay their visa, said device will emit an ear piercing screech, notifying all those around them, they are now illegal. If device is not removed within a certain period of time, while wearer is boarding a plane, etc., device will then explode, leaving the wearer quite maimed. Very few muslims will be allowed to enter the country, and those who get the privilege, will wear two.
6. No immigrant will receive any compensation from the American people. They will work, or go home.
7. No muslim, from ANY country, will be given ‘preferred status’. Saudis status to be revoked. Israelis will now be given such status.
8. Profiling will now be implemented. Grandmothers and small children will no longer be groped and humiliated.
9. All mosques and muslim schools will be closed, plowed under, and the earth salted.
10. The official language of the United States of America is English. No signs, ballots, official documents, etc., will be printed in any language but English. Learn the language, or go home.
There! I’ve gotten them started. See how easy that was? No pork projects added!
Top 5 Problems with the “Comprehensive” Immigration Bill
James Carafano – The Foundry
The good news is Congress cares about trying to fix our flawed immigration system and broken borders.
The bad news is they want to do it with a solution that looks a lot like Obamacare—the “Gang of Eight” 844-page-plus “comprehensive” bill.
The sad news is that such an “easy button” solution will not improve our immigration system.
History shows that big bills designed to solve everything wind up creating as many problems as they address. They become loaded with payoffs for special interests and often introduce measures that work at cross purposes.
The “comprehensive” bill fails at the start. Here are the top five reasons it cannot be fixed.
Police State America, They Cheered!
by The Bunker
This President likes to, “Poke everyone in the eye.” He gets off on it. The snub of the Thatcher funeral is a perfect example. In the world of global diplomacy for a head of state not to attend a former head of states funeral is unprecedented. It show’s a complete lack of manners and unmitigated arrogance. The citizens of America should be outraged and ashamed. This president did it to shove his hatred for the government of Great Britain right in their face. There is also a lot of symbolism in this gesture. Marxist’s like to use symbolism to make their point even stronger.
Remember your history. Boston, pre-revolution was the scene of two major events, “The Boston Massacre and Lexington Green, The shot heard round the world.” This Boston bombing happened on, “Patriots Day” the anniversary of the shot. It was no coincidence. Two things this president told us, he will transform America, he also told us he wanted a civilian army. We saw the evidence of both of these with martial law being enacted in Boston.
This president is rubbing our faces in our own history. He is mocking us by proving he can do anything he wants in the same exact spot that was the birthplace of our Nations Constitutional Republic. This president despises our Constitution. He has said so claiming it is a document of, “Negative Liberties, that restricts the government.” Not anymore, after the Boston lock down.
This event was planned as a test run for complete tyranny, the new American police state.
The pictures and video’s of illegal house to house searches using Gestapo tactics should enrage and scare the American citizen to their core. Armored vehicles with machine gun turrets pointing their fully automatic weapons at civilian homes in peaceful neighborhoods is unprecedented in our history. The fourth amendment is now history. What’s next? Quartering the crowns soldiers in our homes?
I am at a loss for words. We as a free people will not survive this presidents term.
The completely submissive and complicit media will be the death of our Republic.
The idiotic response of the citizens of Boston when they were released from their homes by the crown was disgusting. To chant USA, USA was moronic.
This event was planned so the president could prove to us that having a weapon in your home means nothing. It was him telling us in no uncertain terms that, “If you want a weapon to protect yourself from government tyranny, I’ll show you what real government tyranny looks like! Take a shot, I dare you!!” This was provocation, tempting and pushing to enrage the Liberty Movement.
There can be no doubt left in anyone’s mind that we have, in this formerly Free Republic a cadre of thugs and storm troopers dressed in black masks who will do anything to serve their masters, the crown. Not one of the thousands of badge carrying “Officers of the law” spoke up or questioned their “Orders” to trample the Constitutional Rights of the citizen. They seemed to enjoy their free reign and a chance to use the toys (Armored vehicles, machine guns, grenades etc.) provided by the federal government. Big Sis must be dancing around her office in delight.
The president, we are told, lost his gun grabbing battle with the American citizen. I don’t think so, he has now escalated to a whole new level.
I fear more events like this are in our future. It is time the citizen see them for what they really are. Provocation to start a second American Revolution.
An Ol’ Broad aside: In a way, I can understand the folks of Watertown, MA cheering. They had been in fear of the animal that was running loose, and it was now in custody. On the other hand, it really wasn’t the police that found him, it was a private citizen. Being happy to leave your home safely is one thing. Being confined, having your 4th Amendment rights violated by the illegal search of your home and person, is a whole ‘nuther matter. I think the folks of Watertown need to consider this, and pray that it won’t happen again. Although, considering current circumstance, I wouldn’t count on it.
While I do credit the police for their diligence, I do NOT believe it was necessary to treat innocent citizens like common criminals. Yes, they were searching for a very dangerous piece of trash, but this????
Via Police State USA
WATERTOWN, MA — On Friday, April 19, 2013, during a manhunt for a bombing suspect, police and federal agents spent the day storming people’s homes and performing illegal searches. While it was unclear initially if the home searches were voluntary, it is now crystal clear that they were absolutely NOT voluntary. Police were filmed ripping people from their homes at gunpoint, marching the residents out with their hands raised in submission, and then storming the homes to perform their illegal searches.
This was part of a larger operation that involved total lockdown of the suburban neighbor to Boston. Roads were barricaded and vehicle traffic was prohibited. A No-Fly Zone was declared over the town. People were “ordered” to stay indoors. Businesses were told not to open. National Guard soldiers helped with the lockdown, and were photographed checking IDs of pedestrians on the streets. All the while, police were performing these disgusting house-to-house searches.
Watch the video!
A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state,
the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed.
WE ARE THE MILITIA!
“The militia is composed of free citizens. There is therefore no danger of them making use of their power to make the destruction of their own rights, or suffering others to invade them.”
I’m not sure what law schools all those ‘law makers’ went to, but they all need a refund. A question: Why do we keep electing morons to Congress? The answer is so obvious! Because so many morons vote! This ‘we must DO something’ mentality is more dangerous than a 4 year old in a china shop.
“Are we at last brought to such humiliating and debasing degradation that we cannot be trusted with arms for our defense? Where is the difference between having our arms in possession and under our direction, and having them under the management of Congress? If our defense be the real object of having those arms, in whose hands can they be trusted with more propriety, or equal safety to us, as in our own hands?”
The most dangerous places in this country, even on this planet, are those places where law abiding citizens are disarmed.
“Before a standing army can rule, the people must be disarmed; as they are in almost every kingdom of Europe. The supreme power in America cannot enforce unjust laws by the sword; because the whole body of the people are armed, and constitute a force superior to any band of regular troops that can be, on any pretence, raised in the United States.”
I challenge those in Congress, and yes, even that guy in the White House, to find one item in our foundings, in our Constitution, that allows them, or the Attorney General through endless regulations, to INFRINGE on our GOD given right to self defense, be it from the common criminal on the streets, or the government itself! Any ‘law’ that infringes on our rights, as law abiding citizens, to keep and bear arms is UNCONSTITUTIONAL! All the background checks in the world won’t prevent a criminal, intent to do harm, from getting his/her hands on a weapon of some sort. Criminals and crazy people don’t give a DAMN about all the feel good legislation.
Senate Gun Control Bill Erodes Your Rights and Privacy
Amy Payne – The Foundry
Since the tragic shooting in Newtown, Connecticut, President Obama and many in Congress have pushed a “do something” mentality on gun control.
Heritage experts urged lawmakers to consider the host of complex factors that contribute to violent outbreaks and to steer away from untested ideas that would restrict the rights of law-abiding citizens. But the plan facing a vote in the Senate today would have much broader effects on law-abiding citizens than it would do anything to curb gun violence.
The plan, proposed by Senators Charles Schumer (D-NY), Pat Toomey (R-PA), and Joe Manchin (D-WV), gives Attorney General Eric Holder the power to write countless regulations affecting gun laws. Heritage legal expert David Addington has detailed three dangers to American citizens from the Schumer-Toomey-Manchin gun control bill:
1. It sets “a trap for the innocent.”
The bill’s treatment of gun transfers “lets the Justice Department send people at gun shows to jail for up to five years for a crime they did not even know was a crime.”
2. It allows firearms dealers to do secret background checks on job applicants.
Employers could run secret background checks on job applicants through the FBI’s National Instant Criminal Background Check System (NICS) database without obtaining consent from the job applicants.
3. It “reduces existing privacy protection for mental health records relevant to background checks.”
The bill would weaken existing privacy protection for mental health records in connection with the NICS system, “leaving only what privacy protection the Attorney General cares to provide,” Addington explains.
These changes all affect law-abiding Americans—eating away at our civil liberties. Empowering the Attorney General to write more regulations will not avert future tragedies like we witnessed in Newtown.
As Heritage’s John Malcolm and Jennifer Marshall pointed out, “Gun control laws do not correlate with decreased violence. If gun control were a panacea, then Washington, D.C., Oakland, and Chicago, which have very strict gun control laws, would be among the safest places to live rather than among the most dangerous.”
We need to address the underlying problems that lead to violence and fix any outstanding issues with the current system. But encroaching on the rights of Americans and eroding privacy laws is not the way to do it.
Once again, I woke up to a world gone mad. I’m guessing this is going to be the new normal for a while. Insanity has taken over, and we’re all in the asylum!
In recent days, I’ve found out that I’m considered a terrorist. Really? Me? Yep! According to what is being spread to the Army, by the government, I, and many like me, are a danger to the security of the nation. They say it’s the U.S., but I don’t see how that’s possible. Maybe they mean a danger to evil? Hmmm.. At this point in time, the evil is quite wide spread, but wouldn’t being a danger to evil be a good thing? Not if that evil is your own government who thinks you, as an evangelical, is dangerous. There is something VERY wrong with this scenario.
I really detest that term, “fair share”. It sounds like a couple of kids squabbling over the last piece of cake. What would be fair? Dividing the cake evenly…both kids get the same size piece! The older one doesn’t get a bigger piece cuz he’s older. The same goes for paying taxes. Just because you make more money that victim B, doesn’t mean you should have to shoulder the bigger burden. What would be “fair” in this scenario? In my opinion, BOTH should pay an equal percentage.
I’ll use 10%. Why? Well, if God doesn’t expect you to tithe more than that, why should you be coughing up more and more of your hard earned money just to support victim B, who, in reality, pays NOTHING! If you make a million dollars, you pay 10%. If you make 20 thousand, you pay 10%. Now THAT is a fair share!
Unfortunately, the government doesn’t see that money as yours, even though you worked to earn it. No, they see it as THEIRS, and they want a WHOLE lot more than a fair share of YOUR earnings, if you are more than ‘comfortable’. What do they do with that money? Well, we know that they waste a HUGE amount on failed programs. It doesn’t work? End it, and use that money where it is truly needed, like on national security.
Do you spend more than you make? You probably learned that bad habit, subconsciously, from the government. They are really lousy at managing money, and should be fired. If your accountant for your business was blowing the companies money on useless items, like say, lavish parties on a regular basis, wouldn’t you give them a very large pink slip? The same goes for the mismanagement of OUR money on the federal level.
If things keep going in the direction they have been for the last few years, it will be darn near impossible for our economy to grow. If you hadn’t noticed, there is a tax on EVERYTHING. Our so called representatives are not doing the job they were hired to do, as laid out in the U.S. Constitution, which, by the way, LIMITS their power. It is not their job to take money from you, to create, and spend trillions on “social programs”. Article I, Section 8, clauses 1-16, lays out exactly what Congress is ALLOWED to do. It’s not all that complicated. Article I, known as the Spending Clause, lays out exactly what Congress is enacted to carry out. Unfortunately for the nation, somewhere along the line, some clown decided the “general welfare” term meant that they could suck the life out of you, and give it to someone who is “in need”. Hence, we have Social Security and Medicare, a MASSIVE drain on the country as a whole. If you want more information on the Enumerated Powers of Congress, I suggest you read, links and all, P/H’s paper.
Our government is busy doing the job of charities, to the detriment of the charities that actually accomplish what they set out to do, getting folks back on their feet. The government doesn’t do that. No, they create a ‘dependent’ class, who contribute nothing to the general well being of their community.
I don’t mind helping those in need. It’s our duty! It is NOT the duty of the government. 100 years ago, there was no income tax, yet our country had all the needed infrastructure. Today? Well, let’s just say we’ve created a monster that must be fed more and more, but more is never enough. We need to put that monster out of our misery, and reform it to a more manageable size. We must return it to the box the Constitution sets forth. No more hand outs. No more supporting countries that don’t like us anyway. No more feeding the beast!
It is beyond past time to reform Social Security and Medicare. It’s time for the younger generation to learn they have to prepare for their own retirement and old age. It is time for the government to do the job it was created to do, instead of what the individual members THINK they should do.
Where Did Your Tax Dollar Go?
Romina Boccia & Curtis Dubay – The Foundry
Americans are waking up today to the worst “case of the Mondays” they’ll have all year: It’s Tax Day.
Most Americans dread Tax Day, and for good reasons. Beyond the huge tab Americans pay to the government, the tax code is so complex that it’s difficult to figure out what we owe to the IRS. This is a pain for taxpayers and a huge drain on the economy.
According to the federal Taxpayer Advocate in its 2012 report, Americans’ cost of complying with today’s complex tax code totaled $168 billion in 2010. That’s almost as large as the impact of the Obama tax hikes in fiscal year 2013, and twice the size of sequestration this year [see chart].
It takes taxpayers 6.1 billion hours—or 51 hours per household—to complete all the required filings. That’s more than six full eight-hour working days per household!
This Way to the Battle Boys!
by The Bunker
Are you awake now!!?? Is everything coming into focus? The great gun battle of Obama’s second term has begun and the good guys are losing. They aren’t just losing they haven’t even found the battlefield.
The pro-gunners are hanging around the capitols schmoozing with their favorite Congressman or Senator hoping the same old gang will produce a no vote on any anti-gun bill. The communist’s don’t care about laws or the Constitution. They are using guerilla tactics and burrowing deep into the bowels of the bureaucracy to get results. It’s already working.
To win you have to think like your enemy. Lucky for you after I got back from fighting the yellow hoard of Godless communist’s in the 1970’s I spent some years at the University of Wisconsin. I know the lingo.
Everyone agrees that crazy people shouldn’t have guns, right? Oh man, this is so simple; O K, you’re all crazy. You right wing gun wacko’s are nuts. Get it? Looney Tunes, shotgun toting Elmer Fudd nutzo’s, off to the mental ward, you terrorists! Oh, and if you’re a Veteran, forget it. Everyone knows you volunteered to fight in Bush’s oil wars. You Veteran psychos probably pulled the trigger on freedom loving Muslim’s tweeting for peace.
Let’s look at some recent stories.
Here I rebut the 3 major lies of our time: Multiculturalism is good; islam is a peaceful “religion”; and the First Amendment gives islamists the “right” to build mosques, proselytize, and institute sharia here.
Let us repudiate the lies; and rebuild the shining city on the hill.
February 18, 2013 Act for America Chapter in Fayetteville, TN from Publius Huldah on Vimeo.
We’ve really got to have a chat with Mr P/H about getting these videos available sooner!
All this emotional, knee jerk, reaction to tragedies has got to stop! Creating unconstitutional laws because they make YOU feel good is not a reason to violate law abiding citizen’s God given right to self protection!
The White House lashed out Monday at Republican lawmakers threatening to filibuster gun control legislation in the Senate, accusing them of trying to pull “political stunts” and “hide” behind procedural maneuvers — as support for the filibuster continued to grow.
Sen. Mike Lee, R-Utah, announced early Monday that 13 senators had signed a letter to Majority Leader Harry Reid threatening to oppose “any legislation that would infringe on the American people’s constitutional right to bear arms.”
Lee, along with Sens. Rand Paul, R-Ky., and Ted Cruz, R-Texas, have led efforts to hold up the legislation. The lawmakers would do so by trying to require a 60-vote threshold, which could kill the legislation.
They were joined later in the day by Senate Minority Leader Mitch McConnell, bringing the total to 14.
Excuse me, but where are the rest of the GOPer Senators???? Are those who have not signed on saying they oppose the 2nd Amendment, and our, WE, The People’s God given right to self defense, no matter what form it takes, even if it’s with a misnamed weapon? Y’all better get off the stick, and damn soon!
President Obama criticized the proposed filibuster during a campaign-style event at the University of Hartford in Connecticut about 45 miles from the elementary school where 20 first-graders were shot and killed in December.
“Some back in Washington are already floating the idea that they might use political stunts,” said Obama, who was introduced by Nicole Hockley, whose son, Dylan, was one of the victims. “They’re not just saying they’ll vote ‘no’ on ideas that almost all Americans support. They’re saying they won’t allow any votes on them at all.”
That’s real damn funny coming from the king of political stunts! You know, the king that uses children as political props and tools, and is on a never ending campaign. And where the hell does he get this ‘almost all Americans support’ crap? Has he ever talked to any REAL Americans? I don’t mean those with the marionette strings attached… I mean REAL, day to day, trying to make ends meet, working Americans!! I wonder what would happen if, just once, his lackeys didn’t stack the crowd with the pussified, you owe me, crowd? Yep, I think it would be downright interesting m’self as well.